The Four Temperaments

The Four Temperaments

Dr. David Keirsey, a psychologist, has done a great deal of work on Personality Typing. He has created a theory of temperament associated with each type. He has identified sixteen personality profiles separated by four distinct categories. The titles used here for the temperament types, and the individual personality types listed within each temperament, are Keirsey’s own descriptions. You can click on the personality profiles for more information. (To open the links in a separate window, press & hold the “Control” key, or the “Command” key for Mac users.)

SJ – “The Guardians”

Keirsey describes the SJ group’s primary objective as “Security Seeking”. The SJ grouping includes the types:

  • ESTJ – “The Supervisors”
  • ISTJ – “The Inspectors”
  • ESFJ – “The Providers”
  • ISFJ – “The Protectors”

SP – “The Artisans”

Keirsey describes the SP group’s primary objective as “Sensation Seeking”. The SP grouping includes the types:

  • ESTP – “The Promoters”
  • ISTP – “The Crafters”
  • ESFP – “The Performers”
  • ISFP – “The Composers”

NT – “The Rationals”

Keirsey describes the NT group’s primary objective as “Knowledge Seeking”. The NT grouping includes the types:

  • ENTJ – “The Fieldmarshals”
  • INTJ – “The Masterminds”
  • ENTP – “The Inventors”
  • INTP – “The Architects”

NF – “The Idealists”

Keirsey describes the NF group’s primary objective as “Identity Seeking”. The NF grouping includes the types:

  • ENFJ – “The Teachers”
  • INFJ – “The Counselors”
  • ENFP – “The Champions”
  • INFP – “The Healers”

Man giving woman gift.